Discover the history of the vineyard in Provence, its geography, its reliefs, its soils, its grape varieties, its climate and its names.
The Provence vineyard
If there is one thing that the region of Provence is identified in France, it is its wine. Located on an area of 2,6680 hectares between the Mediterranean and the Alps, the Provence vineyard is renowned for the best quality of wine it offers. In order to know the beauty of the wine produced in this region, it is essential to know its history, its cartography as well as its grape varieties and others.
The history of the vineyard in Provence
When you consume Provence wine, keep in mind that this is a long story you enjoy. Indeed, the history of Provencal wine started 2,600 years ago when the Phocaeans founded Marseille. It was the latter who introduced the vine for the first time in France.
Four centuries later, the Romans settled in this region. This is the era of the development of the vine and the organization of the Romana Provincial: La Provence. This colonization was also marked by the birth of the military port of Fréjus, as well as the city of Aix-en-Provence.
At the fall of the Roman Empire, the culture of the vine is also collapsing. However, from the Middle Ages, the Provence vineyard renames religions with mass wine. From the 5th century, the abbeys began to produce and market wine from which they drew enough income.
Nevertheless, it was not until the 14th century that large noble families, the notables and the officers acquired several wine -growing areas, which gave birth to modern wine Provence.
The geography of the vineyard in Provence
Well known for its pink wines, Provence also offers a good quality of red wine and white wine. If this region produces quality wine, it is in Major Party due to its geography.
A diversified relief
Provencal vines are planted on two geological sets that are limestone and lens. The first covers the western and northern part of the vineyard, while the second which is the lens extends over the eastern part facing the sea. A little further east between Saint-Tropez and Cannes, this part is strewn with Eruptive streaks.
Ideal floors for viticulture
Vineyards in general develop on arid and shallow terrains. On the two main geological sets that characterize this region, there are vegetation (the garrigue and the maquis) which do not allow the constitution of humus. For information, humus represents a rich soil layer which comes from the decomposition of plants. The humus being therefore absent, the soils of this region are arid and poor, which promotes the culture of the vine.
A favorable climate
Provence has a Mediterranean climate. As a result, it presents hot and dry summers as well as fairly soft autumn, spring and winter seasons. Very sunny region with significant rainfall, Provence has the ideal climate for good wine cultivation. To this climate is added the Mistral which is a violent wind, but very beneficial for the vineyard. It allows you to refresh the vineyard and protect the latter from humidity -related diseases.
The grape varieties of the vineyard in Provence
Thanks to its geography, Provence produces a multitude of grape varieties. The grape varieties represent the types of grapes used to make wine. In Provence, there are a dozen grape varieties divided into two categories.
White grape varieties
- Rolle: this type of grape variety from Provence gives wine to the perfumes of citrus pear, almond and fennel;
- The white UGNI is a type of grape variety from Tuscany that produces a nervous and acidic wine;
- The Southern Clairette makes it possible to obtain a fresh white wine and alcoholic with an acid touch;
- The Sémillon which comes from Sauternes is used in assembly to bring roundness and power to wine;
- Bourboulenc is a grape variety from Provence, but very discreet. Used in assembly with other grape varieties, it brings a touch of finesse and roundness to wine.
Red and rosé grape varieties
- Grenache: Originally from Spain, this grape variety is used for the assembly of red wines and gives the latter of fat, magnitude and power;
- Syrah is a grape from Greece which gives colorful pink wines and powerful red wines;
- The Cinsault is a southern grape variety which gives freshness, finesse and a fruity taste for wine;
- The Tibouren is obtained in Provence and makes it possible to produce delicate and elegant rosé wine;
- The Mourvèdre makes it possible to produce carpented wines with fine and well -asserted tannins;
- The Carignan is from Provence and is quite discreet today. It makes it possible to obtain cartoon wines, generous and colorful which are excellent for assembly;
- The Cabernet Sauvignon is Bordeaux and brings a tannic, powerful and soft frame to the wine.
The various names of Provence wines
In terms of wine, we generally speak of appellation in order to identify wines according to their manufacturing origin. In Provence, you will mainly find 09 appellations of wine.
- Bandol: The Bandol appellation area covers eight municipalities, including Bandol, and comes from Mourvèdre. This territory offers powerful and carpence red wines, but also rosé wines and confidential white wines;
- Bellet: little known, this AOC (controlled designation of origin) offers aromatic white wines, silky and fresh pink wines and fleshy red wines;
- Cassis: Located in the town of Cassis, this appellation area is known for its production of the best white wines in Provence which are fine and fresh. Red wines have a good reputation while fairly powerful red wines are less known;
- Coteaux-d'Aix-en-Provence: The name Coteaux-d'Aix-en-Provence is located in the western part of limestone Provence and produced pleasant and red wines;
- Coteaux-de-Pierrevert: This appellation essentially offers tannic red wine, but also balanced rosé wine as well as white wine with beautiful acidity;
- Coteaux-Varois-en-Provence: This appellation area essentially offers fond and tender rosé wine;
- Côtes-de-Provence: specialized in the production of rosé wine which makes its reputation, this appellation area also offers fairly delicate red wine as well as delicate white wine;
- Baux-de-Provence: Located south of Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, this appellation area mainly achieves red wine with a beautiful personality, but also rosé wine
- Pallet: This vineyard produces remarkable white wines with an aromatic intensity, but also structured pink wines as well as red guard wines.
In terms of wine, Provence occupies an important place not only because of its history, but also because of its production. In effect, Our vineyard in Provence offers a variety of quality wines that you must discover and taste absolutely.