Renowned worldwide, the Bordeaux vineyard extends throughout the Gironde department. This unique terroir makes it possible to cultivate renowned grape varieties and produce great exceptional wines. Let's go to meet the Bordeaux wine region, the world capital of wine.
The history of the Bordeaux vineyard
The first feet of vines were imported into the Bordeaux region during the Roman conquest time. It was therefore from the 1st century that the First wines from Bordeaux emerge.
The boom in the Bordeaux vineyard really occurred in the 12th century, when the King of England, Henri II Plantagenêt, married Aliénor d'Aquitaine. This union will allow the export of Aquitaine wines, the claret and black wine, and will generate theBordeaux vineyard expansion, first in the bass, then in the Médoc.
The priority is then placed on the quality of the wine, and the winegrowers quickly opt for barrel farming, a possible solution thanks to the transport of wood by the Dordogne and the Garonne.
Over the centuries, the Bordeaux wine continues to gain in quality, and production is increasingly important. In the 17th century, amphorae gave way to wooden barrels, greatly improving the conservation of wine, and thus facilitating export.
the 1855 classification then distinguishes the Best wines from Bordeaux. We find the Grands Crus Classified of Medoc and Graves, like the Château Margaux Or the Rothschild Mouton Castle.
Unfortunately, the Bordeaux vineyard does not escape the phylloxera crisis in 1870. Production is lower, and prices increased, until the vineyards find their nobility and their yield of yesteryear.
Today, the Bordeaux wine region is strongly marked by this constant will, always, to produce wines of great technicality, with, in particular, assembly wines typical of the region.
The geography of the Bordeaux vineyard and its names
The Bordeaux wine region is distinguished by its particular geography. Thus, 3 regions are emerging, separated from each other by the Dordogne and the Garonne, and each presenting the unique characteristics.
The right bank of Bordeaux
Located in the northeast and east of the Bordeaux region, the right bank Take advantage of a limestone and clay soil conducive to the cultivation of the vine, and in particular the Merlot. The wines from this black grape are more fruity and less tanic than the wines from the other bank. The right bank then separates into two groups:
- Le Blayais and Le Bourgeais, north of the region, produces theAOC Blaye, I'AOC Blaye Côtes de Bordeaux, I'AOC Côtes de Blaye and theAOC Côtes de Bourg ;
- Libournais, in the south of the region, produces theAOC Fronsac, I'AOC Saint-Émilion, I'AOC Pomerol, and many others.
The left bank of Bordeaux
Extent on the northwest and southwest part of the Bordeaux vineyard, the right bank has "bass" soil, composed of sand, clay and gravel. Viticulture is concentrated here on the Cabernet Sauvignon, and on a smaller scale, the Merlot and the Cabernet Franc. Again, the left bank is cut into 2 groups:
- Médoc, north of the region, with theAOC Saint-Estèphe, I'AOC Saint-Julien, I'AOC Pauillac, I'AOC Médoc, I'AOC Margaux… ;
- The Graves and the Sauternais, in the south of the region, with theAOC GRAVES, I'AOC Pessac-Léognan, I'AOC Sauternes, I'AOC Barsac…
In the south-east of the Bordeaux region, between the Garonne and the Dordogne, theBetween two seas produces fruity and dry white wines, and in particular theAOC Graves de Vayres, I'AOC Loupiac, I'AOC Entre-Deux-Mers, I'AOC Cadillac…
Running in Bordeaux
If the Bordeaux vineyards are mainly renowned for their Great red wine wines, they also produce white wines, effervescent wines and pink wines. The winegrowers then use various grape varieties, the Berne Castle In Provence tells you more.
Red grape varieties of the Bordeaux vineyard
The Bordeaux vineyard, all regions combined, mainly produced 3 main red grape varieties, and 2 accessories red grape varieties.
The three dominant red grape varieties from Bordeaux
Bordeaux viticulture is mainly concentrated around 3 red grape varieties.
- the Merlot : This grape variety, majority in the Bordeaux wine region, is generally assembled with Cabernet Franc. It gives round and silky wines, with aromas of prune, cherry, strawberry, cedar and leather;
- the Cabernet Sauvignon : cultivated especially on the left bank, this grape variety gives tannic wines with very good guard potential. We recognize aromas of blackcurrant, cherry and liquorice;
- the Cabernet Franc : the oldest grape in Bordeaux, it offers aromatic and structured wines, with notes of green pepper, strawberry and violet.
The three red grape varieties Bordeaux accessories
In terms of red accessories grape varieties, the Bordeaux wine region has two.
- the Malbec : this grape gives wines capable of aging, providing aromas of black fruit (blackcurrant, blackberry), but also of chocolate;
- the small verdot : grape on the left bank, the little verdot makes it possible to produce dark and very tannic wines, with aromas of cherry, blackberry, violet and blackcurrant.
The white grape varieties of the Bordeaux vineyard
White wine, rosé wine and Crémant de Bordeaux are made from 5 white grape varieties.
- the semillon : this white grape variety gives fresh and mineral wines, with aromas of white fishing and lemon;
- the Sauvignon Blanc : cultivated in Sauternes, this grape gives sweet wines with notes of white fishing, melon and passion fruit;
- The Muscadelle : producing little acidic and soft wines, this grape variety gives aromas of lemon and pineapple;
- L'White UGNI and the colombard : cultivated in the Cognac region, for the manufacture of brandy.
On the wine route, the Bordeaux wine region is essential. We find all the know-how of the winemakers, and the expression of a unique terroir.